Category Archives: AFRICA

Archaeologists in Egypt discovered a giant man still lying in an 8.7-foot-long sarcophagus

Archaeologists in Egypt discovered a giant man still lying in an 8.7-foot-long sarcophagus

Archaeologists in Egypt have a hard question to answer: who is the colossal figure buried inside this massive sarcophagus?

The discovery was made during an excavation in the Sidi Gaber district of Alexandria.

Measuring a whopping 2.65 meters (8.7 feet) in length, the discovery is the largest granite sarcophagus ever found in the area, which is renowned for its ancient relics.

An initial look over at the black granite sarcophagus indicates that it dates back to the Ptolemaic period, an era of Egyptian history that started in 323 BCE following the death of Alexander the Great and ended in 30 BCE after the death of Cleopatra VII and the invasion by the Romans.

The announcement made by Dr. Ayman Ashmawy, head of the government’s Ancient Egyptian Antiquities Sector, noted that the tomb was found at a depth of 5 meters (16 feet) beneath the ground’s surface. Along with its considerable length, it is also 1.85 meters (6 feet) tall and 1.65 meters (5.4 feet) wide.

Most interestingly, Dr. Ashmawy said the layer of mortar between the lid and the body of the sarcophagus appears to be intact, indicating the contents of the stone casket have not seen the light of day since antiquity.

Judging by the exceptional size of the casket, this was most likely the burial place of someone at least of moderate status and wealth, but who?

Well, unfortunately, it probably isn’t some ancient giant. Sarcophagi tend to be a fair bit bigger than the person they carry.

For example, the longest sarcophagus ever discovered in Egypt was over 4 meters (13 feet) long. The person inside, the averagely-designed ruler Merneptah, was certainly not this tall.

Fortunately, there are some big clues laying around. Not far from the sarcophagus, the team found a carved head made out of alabaster believed to depict the “owner” of the tomb.

Alabaster is a soft rock, commonly used for carving, so most of the features have eroded away. However, some further detective work might be able to uncover its mysterious identity.

Thanks to its rich and varied history, the city of Alexandria is regularly the site of incredible archaeological discoveries.

Like many of the coastal ports in the Mediterranean, the city has been an invaluable trading post of goods, ideas, people, and cultures.

Just a few months ago, just off the coast of the city, underwater archaeologists found a collection of ancient shipwrecks and treasures that would make Indiana Jones himself jealous.

Ancient Egyptians Were Embalming Mummies 1,500 Years Earlier Than First Thought

Ancient Egyptians Were Embalming Mummies 1,500 Years Earlier Than First Thought

Tests on a prehistoric mummy reveal that ancient Egyptian embalming methods were in use 1,500 years earlier than previously thought.

The analysis was carried out on the ‘Turin Mummy’, which dates to between 3700BC and 3500BC and has been housed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin since 1901.

Unlike the majority of other prehistoric mummies in museums, it has never undergone any conservation treatments.

This image shows the remains of a coffin containing the mummy in the fetal position

This provided researchers a unique opportunity for accurate scientific analysis of a preserved corpse that has not been tampered with since it was entombed.

Like its famous counterpart Gebelein Man A in the British Museum, the Turin mummy was previously assumed to have been naturally mummified by the desiccating action of the hot, dry desert sand.

Using chemical analysis, researchers uncovered evidence that the mummy had in fact undergone an embalming process.

This was done using plant oil, heated conifer resin, an aromatic plant extract, and a plant gum and sugar mix. This was wiped on the funerary textiles in which the body was wrapped.

The analysis was carried out on the ‘Turin Mummy’ (pictured), which dates to between 3700BC and 3500BC and has been housed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin since 1901

The ‘recipe’ contained antibacterial agents, used in similar proportions to those employed by the Egyptian embalmers when their skill was at its peak some 2,500 years later, according to the team.

The study builds on previous research from 2014 which first identified the presence of complex embalming agents in surviving fragments of linen wrappings from prehistoric bodies in now obliterated tombs at Mostagedda in Middle Egypt.

According to the team, which includes researchers from Oxford, York, and Warwick Universities, the mummy came from Upper Egypt.

The body offers the first indication that the embalming recipe was being used over a wider geographical area at a time when the concept of a pan-Egyptian identity was supposedly still developing.

‘Having identified very similar embalming recipes in our previous research on prehistoric burials, this latest study provides both the first evidence for the wider geographical use of these balms and the first ever unequivocal scientific evidence for the use of embalming on an intact, prehistoric Egyptian mummy’, said Dr. Stephen Buckley, an archaeological chemist and mummification expert of York University.

Unlike the majority of other prehistoric mummies in museums, the ‘Turin Mummy’ has never undergone any conservation treatments, providing a unique opportunity for accurate scientific analysis. Pictured is the mask of King Tutankhamun at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

‘Moreover, this preservative treatment contained antibacterial constituents in the same proportions as those used in later “true” mummification.

As such, our findings represent the literal embodiment of the forerunners of classic mummification, which would become one of the central and iconic pillars of ancient Egyptian culture.’

Dr. Jana Jones, an expert on ancient Egyptian burial practices at Macquarie University in Australia said the find was a ‘momentous contribution to our limited knowledge of the prehistoric period’.

She said it also provided ‘vital, new information on this particular mummy.’

Hidden Chamber Revealed Inside Great Pyramid of Giza

Hidden Chamber Revealed Inside Great Pyramid of Giza

Even at 4,500 years old, the Great Pyramid of Giza is still revealing new secrets.

In 2015, Egyptian officials announced the discovery of a hidden corridor above the pyramid’s entrance. Measuring 30 feet long, the passage could serve as a jumping-off point for additional research into the mysterious inner chambers.

According to a new study published in the journal Nature Communications, the pyramid has been undergoing noninvasive scans since 2015.

Through an international partnership known as ScanPyramids, researchers from around the world have been using cosmic-ray imaging and infrared thermography to map out what lies behind the sand-beaten stones of the exterior.

Tourists visiting the Great Pyramid in Giza, Egypt, earlier this week Fadel Dawod

These scans have revealed several voids, including the 30-foot passage, which lies just behind a chevron-shaped configuration of stones not far from where today’s tourists enter the pyramid. A video released by ScanPyramids offers a glimpse into the mapping process and shows where this newly discovered corridor lies.

After learning of the void, researchers used an endoscope to collect images of the corridor on February 24.

“The first pictures taken with the endoscope seem to show there is nothing, but we cannot see all the room precisely yet,” Sébastien Procureur, lead author of the study and a physicist with the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, tells Live Science’s Owen Jarus.

The Great Pyramid was built around 2560 B.C.E. under Khufu, a pharaoh of Egypt’s Old Kingdom. Mysteries and intrigue have always surrounded his life and death.

The Greek historian Herodotus’ portrait of an oppressive and cruel ruler clashes with Egyptian beliefs about his wisdom. Myths persist about Khufu’s funding and motivation for the creation of the Great Pyramid. 

In 2017, researchers discovered another mysterious void in the pyramid. That chamber measures 98 feet long, and many questions about its purpose remain.

Narrowing down what it wasn’t used for may be an easier task. For example, Mohamed Ismail, a spokesman for the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, dismissed the idea that it could be any sort of hidden or forgotten burial chamber.

“If there is another burial chamber, there would have been an entrance to it,” Ismail told Cassandra Santiago and Sarah El Sirgany of CNN in 2017.

People attending a press conference about the new discovery on March 2 Ahmed Gomaa

Mostafa Waziri, head of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, thinks that the newly discovered corridor likely helped distribute weight within the massive structure, per Reuters’ Aidan Lewis. After all, the pyramid was made with 2.3 million stone blocks, each weighing an average of more than two tons.

Reg Clark, an Egyptologist at Swansea University in Wales who is not connected to the study, echoed the idea that this chamber was purely logistical. “Many of these structural innovations in the pyramids … were developed for pragmatic reasons by the Egyptian tomb builders,” he tells Live Science.

Researchers plan to continue their scans at the site, hoping to find artifacts in the space and unravel more of its mysteries.

Two Ancient Egyptian Kingdom Tombs in Luxor, Egypt, Are Now Open

Two Ancient Egyptian Kingdom Tombs in Luxor, Egypt, Are Now Open

Two tombs of unidentified officials dated to Egypt’s New Kingdom era have been opened at Luxor’s Draa Abul-Naglaa necropolis years after they were initially discovered by German archaeologist Frederica Kampp in the 1990s.

The opening of the tombs was announced at an international conference attended by the governor of Luxor, the minister of social solidarity, the director-general of the International Monetary Fund, members of the international media, foreign ambassadors, members of parliament, and the Minister of Antiquities Khaled El-Enany.

“It is a very important discovery because both tombs contain very rich funerary collections, and one of them has a very distinguished painted statue of a lady in the Osirian shape,” with this most recent discovery being the third Draa Abul-Naga alone.

“It seems that our ancient Egyptian ancestors are bestowing their blessing on Egypt’s economy as these discoveries are good promotion for the country and its tourism industry,” El-Enany told Ahram Online.

Mostafa Waziri, the secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities and head of the Egyptian excavation mission, explains that both tombs were given special numbers by German archaeologist Frederica Kampp in the 1990s.

The first tomb, named “Kampp 161,” was never excavated, while excavation work on the second, “Kampp 150,” was undertaken by archaeologist Kampp short of entering the tomb itself.

The tombs had been left untouched until excavation started during the recent archaeological season. Most of the items discovered in Kampala 161 are fragments of wooden coffins.

The most notable discoveries are a large wooden mask that was originally part of a coffin, a small painted wooden mask, a fragment of a gilded wooden mask in poor condition, four legs of wooden chairs that were among the deceased’s funerary equipment, as well as the lower part of a wooden Osirian shaped coffin decorated with a scene of goddess Isis lifting up her hands.

“The owner of Kampp 150 is not yet known, but there are two possible candidates,” Waziri told Ahram Online.

He said that the first possibility is that the tomb belongs to a person named Djehuty Mes, as this name is engraved on one of the walls.

The second possibility is that the owner could be the scribe “Maati,” as his name and the name of his wife “Mehi” are inscribed on 50 funerary cones found in the tomb’s rectangular chamber.

The tomb has only one inscription on one of its northern pillars. It shows a scene with a seated man offering food to four oxen, with the first kneeling in front of the man, who is giving it herbs. The scene also depicts five people making funerary furniture.

The entrance of the long hall is inscribed with hieroglyphic text with the name “Djehuty Mes.” The ceiling of the chamber is inscribed with hieroglyphic inscriptions and the cartouche of King Thutmose I.

The objects uncovered inside include 100 funerary cones, painted wooden masks, a collection of 450 statues carved in different materials such as clay, wood and faience, and a small box in the shape of a wooden coffin with a lid.

The box was probably used for storing an Ushabti figurine 17 cm tall and 6 cm large. Also found was a collection of clay vessels of different shapes and sizes, as well as a mummy wrapped in linen with its hands on its chest in the Osirian form studies, suggest that the mummy, which was found inside the long chamber, could be of a top official or another powerful person.

Archeologists of Egypt Discover Pharaoh’s Boat in Perfect Condition

Archeologists of Egypt Discover Pharaoh’s Boat in Perfect Condition

Archeologists of Egypt uncovered a boat claimed to have been “perfectly preserved” by Pharaoh Khufu himself, which led to verified theories of how ancient civilization constructed their wonders.

Probably the most famous and well-known of Egypt’s many ancient landmarks and includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza. 

The Great Pyramid of Giza, or the Pyramid of Khufu, is a spectacle of the three still existing pyramids today, who marvel at how a society over 4,500 years ago managed to build such a colossal structure. 

But archeologists were able to slowly combine what this ancient civilization looked like and how ingenious and brilliant people have worked together, thanks to a find made more than half a century ago.

Amazon Prime’s “Secrets of Archaeology revealed some of those secrets. The 2014 series explained: “On this plateau, set on the edge of the desert, the story of the pyramids achieved its finest hour.

“It is here that we best appreciate the grandeur and majesty of these constructions, and the organizational skills and methods used to erect them.

“The workers here were organized into teams that hauled blocks of stones on huge sledges mounted on logs of wood. “Each team was made up of about 1,000 men organized along military lines and led by a master mason and various underlings.

The workers pulled together

“They were not slaves, they earned a regular wage, bed, and board and it is thanks to their work that these immense structures were ever completed.”

The series continued, explaining the clever tactics used by the ancient society to haul together in the building process. It added: “Even today, such imposing buildings would involve complex engineering problems.

“The Great Pyramid of Cheops, which was the first one to be built in Giza around 2500BC, has a base that covers over 12 acres (48,500 square meters). “More than 2,300,000 blocks of stone were needed to build the base and weighed between two and 200 tonnes each.

Evidence showed the workers were skilled, not slaves

“It may sound incredible, but this was once a lush green land, with neither desert nor buildings. “Irrigation canals linked the areas to the Nile, and some of the stones used in buildings were transported on these canals.”

The documentary went on to reveal how evidence of this was discovered more than 50 years ago. It added: “A boat made with cedarwood built almost 5,000 years ago was discovered here in 1954 near the Pyramid of Cheops, still in a perfect state of preservation.

Khufu’s boat was found in this hole

“Archaeologists found it belonged to the pharaoh Cheops himself, 140 feet long, equipped with 12 oars and was probably used by Cheops when he traveled along the Nile. “On those occasions, his subjects could get a glimpse of their Pharaoh and pay homage to him.”

At completion, the Great Pyramid was surfaced with white “casing stones” — slant-faced, but flat-topped, blocks of highly polished white limestone.

However, in 1303, a massive earthquake loosened many of the outer casing stones, which were taken away 50 years later to be used in the building of mosques and fortresses in Cairo.

Many other theories have been proposed regarding the pyramid’s construction techniques, disagreeing on whether the blocks were dragged, lifted, or even rolled into place. 

The Greeks believed that slave labor was used, but modern discoveries made at nearby workers’ camps associated with construction at Giza suggest it was built instead of thousands of skilled workers. 

Czech archaeologist, Miroslav Verner, claimed that the labor was organized into a hierarchy, consisting of two gangs of 100,000 men, divided into five zaa or phyle of 20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the workers.

Researchers “shocked” to discover 2,000-year-old Egyptian mummy was a pregnant woman

Researchers “shocked” to discover 2,000-year-old Egyptian mummy was a pregnant woman

A mummified fetus identified within the leathery womb of an ancient Egyptian pregnant mummy was preserved for more than 2,000 years. Now, scientists have described the unusual processes that led to its preservation.

The Warsaw Mummy Project was launched in 2015 by a team of bio-archaeologists from the University of Warsaw. Their website says they aim to “thoroughly examine human and animal mummies from ancient Egypt at the National Museum in Warsaw.”

In April 2021, the BBC announced that a team of Warsaw Project researchers published an article in the Journal of Archaeological Science revealing the first documented case of a pregnant ancient Egyptian mummy and its mummified fetus.

The 2,000-year-old mummy, currently on display at the National Museum in Warsaw, was at first believed to be the remains of Hor Djehuti, a High Priest of Amun from the time of Ahmose I who lived at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty (1539 to 1292 BC).

However, in 2016, the Warsaw Project announced that the mummy was in fact that of an embalmed pregnant woman who was in the 26th to 30th week of her pregnancy when she died and was mummified!

X-ray scans of the ancient Egyptian pregnant mummy and its mummified fetus. On the left, the sarcophagus which contained the mummy.

Back in April 2021 we covered the publication of the scientist’s first study of the pregnant mummy .

At that time, Dr. Wojciech Ejsmond, lead author from the Polish Academy of Sciences, told The Sun that while mummies of babies were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, this was the first time a pregnant woman has been preserved with soft tissue.

In April, Dr. Ejsmond said “more research is needed.” Now, the same team is back in the headlines having done the aforementioned research on the mummified fetus and they say the mysteries of the pregnant mummy only exist because of an unusual chemical process that led to the fetus being “pickled” and trapped in time.

Professor Ożarek-Szilke is co-director of the Warsaw Mummy Project. In a new paper published in the Journal of Archaeological Science , the bio-archaeologist explained that to dry the pregnant woman’s dead body the embalmers covered her with natron, a natural compound of sodium salts that was used extensively in prehistory across Egypt, Middle East and Greece.

The powder was mostly used like baking-soda in cooking, medicine and agriculture, but it also had applications in glass-making and mummification.

Natron acts as a natural disinfectant and desiccating (drying) agent and it was the primary ingredient used in the ancient Egyptian mummification process .

After removing the organs and packing the internal cavities with dry natron, the body tissues were preserved. Then, the cadaver was packed with dry Nile mud, sawdust, lichen and dry cloths to make it more flexible in the afterlife.

The scientists wrote in the new study that when the natron was spread over the pregnant woman “it caused formic acid and other compounds” to manifest inside the woman’s uterus, creating the perfect conditions for preserving the fetus.

Gardeners know all too well, as do doctors, that acid and alkaline levels (pH) in nature determines the success of all organic growth. PH is a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in water: with the more free hydrogen ions making for greater acidity.

During life, high pH (acid) in your blood it’s called alkalosis, while low pH is called acidosis, and both can lead to severe kidney complications. In the case of the mummified pregnant woman the increased acidity served to preserve the fetus.

The scans of the pregnant mummy revealed a mummified fetus, as seen in these abdominal scans of her remains.

Because of several chemical processes related to decomposition, say the scientists, the pH level inside the woman’s body shifted from an alkaline to a more acidic environment.

The new paper explains that these acids caused the minerals trapped within the tiny fetal bones to dry out and over time they “mineralized” or “pickled.”

Dr. Ożarek-Szilke explained that the scans of the ancient Egyptian mummified fetus show the fetus’ “mineralized skull,” which developed the fastest. The hands and feet also appear on scans but these never formed with bones, but left behind only dried tissues.

Site Of Ancient Egyptian “Great Revolt”, Recorded On Rosetta Stone, Finally Discovered

Site Of Ancient Egyptian “Great Revolt”, Recorded On Rosetta Stone, Finally Discovered

Archaeologists have long known about the Great Revolt, a battle between the ancient Egyptians and the Ptolemaic Kingdom that lasted from 207 B.C. to 184 B.C., because it is mentioned on the Rosetta Stone and in other historical texts. But now, archaeologists have finally discovered the exact location of one of the revolt’s battles.

In 2009, archaeologists began excavating a site known as Tell el-Timai, where an ancient Greco-Roman industrial city called Thmouis was located on the Nile Delta of northern Egypt.

The excavations were part of the Tell Timai Archaeological Project, an ongoing program by the University of Hawaii to learn more about Thmouis and the role it played in ancient Egypt. The team’s findings were published Dec 2022 in the Journal of Field Archaeology.

The excavations revealed evidence that Thmouis was “ground zero” of a violent conflict, but at first the researchers weren’t certain which one.

Over the next decade, they unearthed the remains of numerous buildings that had been burned to the ground, as well as a cache of artifacts that included weapons like ballista stones along with coins and a headless statue depicting the Ptolemaic queen Arsinoë II.

Weapons found at Tell Timai: Ballista stones, a sling pellet, and an arrowhead

They also discovered an abundance of unburied ancient human remains strewn about the city, according to the study.

“At first I was seeing things that piqued my curiosity and began to realize that we were looking at the destruction layer,” study first author Jay Silverstein, project co-director of Tell Timai and an archaeologist and senior lecturer at Nottingham Trent University in the United Kingdom, told Live Science. “And then we started finding bodies.”

The Ptolemaic period (304 B.C. to 30 B.C.) was started by Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander the Great’s Macedonian generals. The Rosetta Stone contains a decree written in 196 B.C., during the reign of pharaoh Ptolemy V, when the Great Revolt was ongoing. 

Both before and after the Ptolemies gained control, ancient Egyptians were meticulous when it came to burying the dead, even creating “elaborate underground embalming workshops,” like the one recently discovered in Saqqara.

“In Egypt, people pay a lot of attention to burying people, so to have people unburied tells you a lot,” Silverstein said. “All these findings were sending a message that there was some event here in history and we had to figure out what it was.”

However, the identities of the deceased are unclear. “The unburied dead could be Greeks who lived at Thmouis who were overtaken by the violence of the insurrection, or they could be Egyptians who died defending the town,” the researchers wrote in the study.

Dating the battleground

Using some of the artifacts plucked from the site, including coins pulled from beneath a home’s floorboards, along with the discovery of an abandoned kiln complex where pottery was produced, archaeologists could better pinpoint the time period of the battle based on when the coins were minted.

Coins and pottery discovered in a destroyed room during the excavations at Tell Timai

During the excavation, they pulled fragments of imported Greek wares and shards of pottery, whose styles helped them determine that the ceramics probably dated to the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Silverstein said.

Within the kiln complex, archaeologists were surprised to find the remains of a man inside a kiln with his legs sticking out.

“I think it’s possible that he had crawled into a non-functioning kiln to try to hide [during the attack],” Silverstein said.

Historical texts also confirm that the kilns were shut down near the end of the Early Ptolemaic period, when the Egyptians unsuccessfully tried to liberate themselves from Ptolemaic rule during the Great Revolt.

The kilns that remained and were unearthed during the excavation were all “truncated at a uniform level,” offering more evidence that an attack happened at the site, according to the study. 

“The evidence of conflict and destruction at northern Thmouis is unequivocal, and the timing is well-placed  and thus coincides with the Great Revolt,” the study authors wrote in their paper.

Child Buried With 142 Dogs in Ancient Egyptian Necropolis

Child Buried With 142 Dogs in Ancient Egyptian Necropolis

Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of 142 non-ritually buried dogs, covered in blue powder, in an elite Egyptian tomb. It is believed they were drowned in a reservoir flood.

Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979, the Faiyum Oasis necropolis contains a group of ancient Egyptian tombs located approximately 62 miles (100 kilometers) southwest of Cairo. The tombs feature well-preserved paintings and inscriptions from the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) through the Ptolemaic Period (305-30 BCE), illustrating the day-to-day activities of ancient Egypt.

The Faiyum Oasis is a marvel, including precious archaeological sites and geological wonders

An article by Heritage Daily explains that archaeologists from CEI RAS have been excavating 4th century BC to 7th century AD burials at Faiyum for several years.

In 2021, an international team of archaeologists uncovered a large tomb dating back to the New Kingdom period (1550-1070 BC) that contained the remains of “142 dogs,” buried alongside the tomb’s owner, who is believed to have been an elite 8 or 9 year old girl.

Four Legged Family Members, Or Working Dogs?

The discovery of the 142 dogs’ remains offers newfound insights into ancient Egyptians’ relationship with canines, both as pets and working dogs, which is an important aspect of their culture that is not well understood.

The researchers said the dogs were “ carefully buried ,” with many of them lying on their sides, facing the tomb’s human inhabitant. According to an article in Greek Reporter , this suggests the dogs were highly valued and possibly even considered members of the family.

Different dog breeds were identified in the tomb, with some of the races resembling modern-day breeds, such as greyhounds and salukis, while others were wild pariah dogs.

This discovery indicates that Egyptians bred dogs for specific jobs, like hunting, herding, and companionship. To learn more about their breeds and origins, the archaeologists are now planning a study of the 142 dogs’ DNA.

The mummified remains of a young girl with 142 dogs raised interesting questions. There were a variety of dog breeds in ancient Egypt, and in the newly discovered tomb

They All Died Together, But Not By A Human Hand

In ancient cultures, it was not uncommon for animals to be buried alongside their owners, which were often regarded as companions and served as status symbols. In ancient Egypt, dogs were highly valued and were sometimes mummified and buried with their owners in tombs or cemeteries. But not in this case.

This discovery of 142 dog remains is significant, in that it has the potential to provide new insights into the culture and society of ancient Egypt, and how they interacted with animals. Zoologist Galina Belov , from the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Egyptology Department, examined the dogs and found that they all died at the same time, with “no evidence of violence”.

Mummy of a dog with naturistically modelled head, face covered with dark-brown linen, one eye applied.

Accidental Death by Drowning?

At Dayr al-Barsha, a Coptic village in Middle Egypt, the remains found in shafts and burial chambers included dogs, foxes, eagle owls, bats, rodents, and snakes.

However, these animals were not ritually buried, but rather trapped in the shafts by accident. And it would seem that an accident was also the cause of death of the 142 dogs discovered last year.

According to a report on News AM , the researchers identified traces of “blue clay” over the dog’s remains, which are thought to have come from an ancient Egyptian reservoir.

This discovery suggested the dogs had been involved with a flooded water source in which they might have drowned. In conclusion, it is thought that maybe the child had been caring for the animals, but an even bigger mystery surrounds “the linen bag” found on the girl’s head!

Linen Indicated High-Status in Ancient Egypt

A similar linen bag was found on another head at the same necropolis, but on an executed man with an arrow in his chest. By 3600 BC, Egyptians had begun to mummify the dead by wrapping them in linen bandages or strips with plant extracted embalming oils, and the linen was adhered to the body using gum, as opposed to a glue.

Linen dressings provided the body physical protection from the elements, and depending on how wealthy the deceased’s family was, the departed could be dressed with an ornamental funeral mask and shroud.

However, in this case, the deceased girl with the linen bag on her head was laid amongst almost 150 dogs, which while not being gold, also indicated elite status, as someone had to pay for the feed and upkeep of all these animals.

Painted mummy bandages

Perfectly-preserved ‘bog beetles’ nearly as old as Egypt’s pyramids

Perfectly-preserved ‘bog beetles’ nearly as old as Egypt’s pyramids

Two thumb-size beetles found preserved in an English bog may look as though they died as recently as yesterday, but in reality they’re nearly as ancient as Egypt’s pyramids, new research finds.

The two oak capricorn beetles found in the bog.

The two oak capricorn beetles (that belonged to the genus Cerambyx) date back 3,785 years, according to radiocarbon dating. That means these beetles perished inside a piece of bogwood just as the last woolly mammoths were dying out on Siberia’s Wrangel Island, half a world over.

“These beetles are older than the Tudors, older than the Roman occupation of Britain, even older than the Roman Empire,” Max Barclay, curator of beetles at the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London, said in a statement.

“These beetles were alive and chewing the inside of that piece of wood when the pharaohs were building the pyramids in Egypt. It is tremendously exciting.”

The bog beetles have been part of the NHM collection since the late 1970s, after a farmer discovered the lifeless beetles in a piece of wood on his farm in East Anglia, on the eastern coast of England known for its Bronze and Iron Age settlements, as well as its bogs.

These waterlogged bogs have low-oxygen, highly-acidic conditions known for preserving organic matter, including dead bodies, Live Science previously reported.

As far as I know, the story is this: A farmer in eastern England was cutting up wood he’d found while doing some deep ploughing and discovered these insects inside; dead, of course,” Barclay told the BBC. “This was a huge piece of waterlogged oak, and he sent us a sample.”

A farmer found the two beetles in a piece of wood on his farm.

The donation caught the attention of curators, who identified the insects as oak capricorn beetles — named for their long curved antennae, which look like the horns of the alpine ibex (Capra ibex). 

Cooling temperatures from climate change may have caused the oak capricorn beetle to go extinct in England, but not in Southern and Central Europe, where they live today, Barclay said in the statement.

“This is a beetle that is associated with warmer climates,” he said. “Possibly it existed in Britain 4,000 years ago because the climate was warmer, and as the climate cooled and the habitats destroyed, it became extinct.”

“Now, with global warming, there are indications that it could return to Britain in the future,” Barclay added.

Granted, the beetles will have to find the right habitat. Oak capricorn beetles, which live for just three to five years, lay their eggs in the deadwood part of very old, unshaded living trees, according to a fact sheet from the European Union. The adults can fly, albeit poorly, and are usually found within one-third of a mile (500 meters) of their tree. 

“It is quite extraordinary to hold something in your hand that looks like it was collected yesterday but is actually several millennia old,” Barclay said. 

3,300-Year-Old Egyptian Hairstyles Revealed They Wore Extensions!

3,300-Year-Old Egyptian Hairstyles Revealed They Wore Extensions!

Egyptian Discovery: Many women these days view their hair as a kind of accessory with which to play, changing its look, colour and even length depending on the season, their outfit, and whether they are feeling casual or sombre, or they’re just in the mood for a different look.

Hairstyles are part of fashion, every bit as important to a woman’s look as the shoes she wears or the purse she carries.

Nowadays, even women with short hair aren’t prevented from wearing a long, curly look – they simply add extensions and give their appearance a whole new vibe.

Most women today imagine that extensions (and other changes they can make) are recent innovations, a far cry from their grandmother’s day, when the only option was a bottle of peroxide, and that was only if they wanted to look like a bombshell movie star. Choices in those days, say 75 years ago, were truly limited, at least when it came to colour.

An Egyptian woman’s hairstyle.

But as the saying goes, nothing on this earth is really new. And the ancient Egyptians, a truly advanced and sophisticated group, proved that repeatedly with everything from burial techniques that preserved bodies to hairstyles, colours and curls.

What we do now in expensive salons, techniques stylists imagine are cutting edge, are in fact as much as 3,300 years old, thanks to the Egyptians. Even extensions, which celebrities like Kim Kardashian tout as modern and fun, were worn by many women in ancient Egypt, and they were even buried wearing them, too.

Take the cemetery at the city of El-Amarna, for example. The cherished archaeological site, which has been undergoing exploration and excavation since 1977, revealed in 2014 examples of women who, thousands of years ago, wore intricate updos, extensions and even skull caps.

One skull was found six years ago with about 70 hair extensions still attached, and experts worked to recreate exactly what the Egyptian mummified body would have looked like when alive – hairdo intact.

Jolanda Bos and Lonneke Beukenholdt

The ongoing project is done by the Institute of Archaeological Research of Cambridge University in England, with the support and permission of the Ministry of Antiquities in Egypt.

The hairdos found indicate that women of ancient Egypt favoured complicated styles, ones that featured a variety of layers and lengths.

Several Egyptian skulls are so well preserved that archaeologists can get a clear, comprehensive picture of what trends and colours were fashionable back then. One skull shows that henna was likely used to cover grey hair on one woman, thereby giving her a more auburn shade, and probably a more youthful appearance.

These skulls and remains may be more than 3,000 years old, but the motivations behind the women’s choices were, it’s fair to say, timeless and still prevalent.

Jolanda Bos and Lonneke Beukenholdt

The Amarna Project continues to pull back the curtain on this ancient city, which citizens abandoned after the death of the pharaoh who built it.

The site consists of several zones, one of which is called Central City, where administration buildings, temples and palaces were built when the city was first constructed.

The pharaoh, Akhenaten, ruled from approximately 1353 until 1335 B.C. Historians say his greatest impact on his people was a change to their religion, moving it more fully to worshipping the sun.

Building Amarna was in keeping with those beliefs, but once the pharaoh passed away, citizens felt less compelled to stay in this city in the desert.